"Our enemies are innovative and resourceful, and so are we. They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we." --President George W. Bush, Washington, D.C., Aug. 5, 2004In Section 2 of the Act of March 9. 1933  (Exhibit 17), we find the following:
"Subdivision (b) of Section 5 of the Act of October 6, 1917 [The 1917 "Trading With The Enemy Act" -lrw] (40 Stat. L. 411), ...is hereby amended to read as follows;" "During time of war or during any other period of national emergency declared by the President, the President may, through any agency that he may designate, or otherwise, investigate, regulate, or prohibit, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, by means of licenses or otherwise, any transactions in foreign exchange, transfers of credit between or payments by banking institutions as defined by the President and export, hoarding, melting, or earnarkings of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency, by any person within the United States or anyplace subject to the jurisdiction thereof."
What just happened? As far as commercial, monetary or business transactions were concerned, the people of the United States were no longer differentiated from any other enemy of the United States. We had lost that crucial distinction. [Also] Comparing Exhibit 17 with Exhibit 19, we can see that the phrase which excluded transactions executed wholly within the United States has been removed from the amended version of Section 5 (b) of the Act of March 9, 1933, Section 2, and replaced with "by any person within the United States or anyplace subject to the jurisdiction thereof." All monetary transactions, whether domestic or international in scope, were now placed at the whim of the President of the United States through the authority given to him by the Trading with the Enemy Act. --WAR AND EMERGENCY POWERS, RESEARCHED AND WRITTEN BY: Gene Schroder Aivin Jenkins Jerry Russell Ed Petrowsky Russell Grieder Darrell Schroder Walter Marston Lynn Bitner Billy Schroder Van Stafford Fred Peters Tinker Spain Paul Bailey AMERICAN AGRICULTURE MOVEMENT, Box 130 Campo, Colo 81029 [ADDRESS NO LONGER VALID]This "State of Emergency" has been repeatedly re-declared, and is in effect to this day, May 7, 2007.
"The United States is at war with America. And we have been for 60 years." President George W. Bush, "Tonight" with Jay Leno, June 29, 2006Notes:  This law was passed by Congress in an extraordinary noon session, especially called by FDR on March 9, 1933, a scant five days after his inauguration. At that session, Roosevelt submitted an already written bill (but written by who in that scant five days), calling on the "rule of necessity" -- essentially a legal excuse saying circumstances are so dire, it's necessary to break the law, in this case, the U.S. Constitution -- to deal with those circumstances. And what were these dire circumstances? Essentially, the insolvency of about 50% of the nations banks from excess printing of bills by the Federal Reserve, which claimed, right on their face, to be "REDEEMABLE IN GOLD ON DEMAND," but for which redemption, there simply wasn't enough gold. --lrw return